- Parent Category: Content
- Created on Thursday, 02 July 2015 20:05
- Last Updated on Thursday, 02 July 2015 20:25
- Published on Thursday, 02 July 2015 20:05
- Written by Anthony Atherton
- Hits: 1250
A GARLAND OF VISIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE
VIII. BHAKTI DARSANAM -VISION BY CONTEMPLATION
Meditation of the Self is contemplation,
Because the Self consists of bliss,
A knower of the Self meditates by the Self,
Upon the Self, for ever.
ATMAANUSANDHAMNAM, meditation on the self,
ATMA, the self,
ANANDAGHANAH (BHAVATI), consists of bliss,
TATAH, for that reason,
ATMAVID, a knower of the self,
ATMANAM, the self,
ATMANA, by the self,
SADA-EVA, forever always,
ANUSANDHATTE, meditates upon.
Bhakti is meditation on the Self. The Bhagavad Gita (III.17) underlines the truth that a man who is always interested in the Self and satisfied in it has nothing else to do. Sankara in the Vivekacudamani (Verse 32) also says that bhakti is meditation on the true form of one's Self. The reason why such great importance is given to contemplation on the Self is stated in this verse by the fact that the very nature of the Self consists of bliss. It goes without saying that it is the high value of bliss which deserves to be meditated upon. All living beings are naturally disposed to such meditation. Therefore the quality of representing this high value is what makes the Self fit to be meditated upon. In the world all people who have attained to Self-realization are in truth those who contemplate the Self.
anusandhiyate brahma brahmanandaghanam yatah
sada brahmanusandhanam bhaktirityavagamyate
The Absolute is meditated upon
Because it consists of bliss.
Constant meditation on the Absolute
Is thus known as contemplation.
BRAHMA, the absolute,
ANUSANDHIYATE, is meditated upon,
YATAH, because of this,
BRAHMA, the absolute,
ANANDAGHANAM, consists of bliss,
SADA BRAHMA-ANUSANDHANAM, constant meditation on the absolute,
BHAKTIHITI-AVAGAMYATE, is thus known as contemplation.
The Self is the same as the Absolute, and the meditation of the Self is therefore the same as the meditation of the Absolute. It is because the Absolute consists of bliss that a knower of the Self contemplates the Absolute. Such a constant and unbroken meditation. is what is well known as contemplation.
anandameva dhyayanti sarve duhkham na kascana
yadanandaparam dhyanam bhaktirityupadisyate
It is even bliss that all do meditate,
No one at all (meditates) suffering.
That which is meditation of bliss,
As contemplation it is thought.
ANADAM-EVA, even bliss,
DHYAYANTI, do meditate,
NA (DHYAYATI), does not (meditate),
YAT, that which,
ANANDAPARAM, as pertaining to bliss,
BHAKTIH-ITI, as contemplation,
UPADISYATE, it is taught.
All creatures in the world desire happiness. There is not even one living being wishing for suffering. As for the Absolute it is made of bliss. Therefore, the goal desired by all is the contemplation of the Absolute which is the contemplation of bliss, and this is (true) contemplation. Such is the teaching of all knowers of the Self.
atmaiva brahma bhajati nanyamatmanamatmavit
bhajatiti yadatmanam bhaktirityabhidhiyate
It is the Self alone that contemplates the Absolute;
The knower of the Self
Meditates on the Self, and not on any other.
That which is meditation on the Self
Is said to be contemplation.
ATMA-EVA BRAHMA, it is the self alone that is the absolute,
ATMAVIT, the knower of the self,
ATMANAM, on the self,
ANYAM NA (BHAJATI),does not (meditate) any other,
ATMANAM, on the self,
BHAJATI-ITI-YAT, that which is meditation,
(TAT)BHAKTIH-ITI, (that)as contemplation,
ABHIDHIYATE, is said to be.
It is because a wise man is a knower of the Self that he meditates on the Self. Not only does he meditate on the Self, but he meditates on nothing other than the Absolute consisting of existence, subsistence and value (i.e. bliss). He does not meditate on the inert and unreal non-Self which is the cause of suffering. He does not (even) meditate on the world. Because of meditating on the Self it is called bhakti or contemplation. So, the man who meditates on the Self is the real contemplative. The Self is the Absolute, and the knower of the Self is the same as the knower of the Absolute. This is the same as saying he is a true contemplative. The characteristics of such a knower of the Absolute will be further described in the final chapter.
ananda atma brahmeti namaitasyaiva tanyate
iti niscitadhiryasya sa bhakta iti visrutah
Bliss, the Self and the Absolute
Are said to be the names of this alone.
In whom there is such sure awareness,
He as a contemplative is well known.
ANANDAH ATMA BRAHMA-ITI, bliss, the self and the absolute,
ETASYA-EVA NAMA, are the names of this alone,
TANYATE, is said to be,
YASYA, of whom,
NISCTADHIH (ASTI), there(is) sure awareness,
BHAKTAH IVA VISRUTAH, so as a contemplative is well known.
It is the same ultimate reality having the attributes of existence-subsistence-value which is also referred to as the Self, the Absolute or bliss. Such a certitude is called contemplation (bhakti). The man possessing this certitude is the real contemplative (bhakta). In this verse the truth of the great dictum (mahavakya), "This Self is the Absolute" is indicated. We know by this that the Self referred to is in the form of bliss (anandarupa). The correct understanding of the meaning of this dictum is true contemplation and the man possessing this knowledge is the true contemplative.
anando'hamaham brahma'tma'hamasmiti rupatah
bhavena satatam yasya sa bhakta iti visrutah
"I am Bliss, I am the Absolute, I am the Self."
In whom, in such forms,
There is always creative imagination,
As a contemplative he is well known.
AHAM ANANDAHA-ASMI , "I am bliss",
AHAM BRAHMA (ASMI)," I am the absolute",
AHAM ATMA (ASMI),"I am the self",
ITI RUPATAH, in such forms,
YASYA, in whom,
BHAVANA (ASTI),there (is) creative imagination,
SA BHAKTAH ITI VISRUTAH, as a contemplative he is well known.
As stated in the previous verse, a contemplative having conceptually and intellectually understood the truth of the great dicta like "I am bliss," "I am the Absolute, "I am the Self," as referring to the same reality when he realizes himself to be the Absolute through his own inner experience (perceptually) this state is said to be the most superior kind of contemplation. The man attaining to this kind of contemplation is the best of contemplatives.
bharya bhajati bhartaram bhartta bharyam
na svanandameva bhajati sarvopi visayastitam
The wife does not merely adore the husband,
Nor the husband merely adore the wife,
It is self-bliss alone that they adore,
As lodged within every sensuous object.
BHARYA BHARTARAM, the wife, the husband,
NAKEVALAM BHAJATI, does not merely,
BHARTTA-BHARYAM, the husband the wife,
NA BHAJATI, does not merely adore,
SARVAH-API, even every,
VISHAYA-STHITAM, lodged within every sensuous object,
SVANANDAM EVA, it is even self-bliss,
BHAJATI, (they) adore.
Here the commentary explains how ordinary people think that when a husband takes care of his wife who ministers to him, it is merely in the interest of the husband or wife that they do so. The truth is that whatever pleasure they derive from sense objects is really felt as pleasure by the Self alone. The ignorant man considers the source of pleasure as existing in things and is attracted to them. But the wise man finds the source of pleasure in himself, and sees the universality of such a pleasure. The well- known instance of the dialogue between Yajnavalkya and his wife Maitreyi found in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (IV.51ff) supports this point. (See pages 699-700 above).
evam pasyati kutrapi vidvanatmasukham vina
na kincidaparam tasya bhaktireva gariyasi
For the wise man who sees
Thus at any place whatever,
There is nothing at all other than Self-bliss.
(Such) contemplation verily is the highest.
VIDVAN, the wise man (of self-knowledge),
KUTRAPI, at any place whatever,
ATMA SUKHAM VINA, other than self-bliss,
APARAMKINCID(API), (even) a little of anything else,
NA PASYATI, does not see,
TASYA BHAKTIH-EVA, his contemplation verily,
GARIYASI, is most exalted.
In the same way as worldly people enjoy sensual pleasures on the basis of the bliss of the Self, so too the wise man enjoys Self-bliss everywhere. He does not see anything but Self-bliss in any object of interest. Because a wise man knows the unity of the living Self and the supreme Self, the bliss he enjoys everywhere is known by him to belong to the Self. What is more he treats without any difference all such bliss anywhere and in any creature as belonging to himself. In other words the bliss of the creature is identical with the bliss of the Self. The wise man understands this verity. Because he is capable of seeing all bliss as pertaining to the Absolute, his contemplation is called the most exalted.
lokasya pitari svasyagurau pitari matari
atyasya sthapitari ca tatpathenaiva yatari
Towards the Father of the World, to one`s
Spiritual teacher, father, mother,
Towards the Founders of Truth, and
Towards those who walk in the same path;
LOKASYA PITARI, towards the father of the world,
SVASYA, to one's,
GURAU PITARI MATARI, spiritual teacher, father, mother,
SATYASYA STHAPITARI, towards the founders of truth,
TAT-PATHENA-EVAYATARI, towards those who walk in the same path.
niyantari nisiddhasya sarvesam hitakarttari
yo'nurago bhaktiratra sa para paramatmani
Towards those who put down evil,
And those who do good to all -
What sympathy there is, is devotion here,
(While) what here belongs to the Self Supreme is the ultimate.
NISHIDHASYA NIYANATARI, towards those who put down evil (i.e.
towards those who control (their subjects) from forbidden actions),
SARVESAM HITA KARTTARI (CA), (also) towards those who do good to all,
ANURANGAH YA, what sympathy there is,
SA BHAKTIH, that is devotion,
ATRA PARAMATMANI, what belongs to the supreme self,
SA PARA, that is the ultimate (devotion).
All humans need adoration to a god for the sake of securing their happiness here as well as hereafter. Those who desire liberation also need the same for the sake of the purification of the Self. It is also important that all persons should respect their spiritual teacher with the same respect given to god, because of their help in removing ignorance and bestowing the light of wisdom. It is the duty, moreover of every human being to have respect and regard for their mother and father because they caused his birth and suffered many inconveniences for his sake thereafter.
When truth and righteousness decline in the world there are people like Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Jesus who come for the regeneration of mankind to once again re-establish righteousness. There are also those who follow the footsteps of such men and who constitute good models. It is good that people have respect and regard for people who control and prohibit bad acts like murder, robbery, drunkenness and debauchery. By doing this they give protection to everybody and nurture goodness among men.
All the above-stated items are necessary to human life, and this is why we have set them forth as examples. In spite of this, however, what is indicated in this chapter as most important is devotion to the supreme Self, being of the nature of existence, subsistence and value. All other devotions are customary or traditional only, but the one referring to the supreme Self is the highest devotion.
IX. YOGA-DARSANAM (VISION OF MEDITATION)
satatam yojayati yadyunakti ca cidatmani
mano nirodharupo'yam sa yoga iti samsitah
That which always unites the mind
With the reasoning Self, and also gets united with it,
And which is in the form of restraint,
That is praised as Yoga.
YAD, that which,
CIDATMANI, in the reasoning self (i.e. in the absolute which is in the nature of wisdom)
MANAH, the mind,
YUNAKTI CA, and gets united,
NIRODHA-RUPAH SAH AYAM, that which is of the form of restraint
(of the mind),
ITI SAMSITAH, is praised to be.
The correct meaning of the word Yoga is the union of the mind, when rid of all gross of nescience, with the (reasoning) Self. This is Yoga or union. The mind has in it many activities which come under nescience etc. When all such activities have been countered by the means that have been indicated in the wisdom texts, and when the mind is thus made to unite with the pure Ultimate Self, such a branch of knowledge is called Yoga. The radical yuj is used in texts as meaning samadhi in the expression yuj-samadhau (union in samadhi) by Panini, the great ancient grammarian and linguistic authority, and we are therefore justified in treating Yoga and samadhi as pertaining to the same subject.
The saying of Patanjali in one of his opening sutras that Yoga is the restraint of the mind, as well as the definition of Valmiki in the Yoga Vasishta which says that Yoga consists of the act or means of tranquilizing the mind, all indicate the same meaning of Yoga. Because Yoga mainly consists of restraint of the mind, it is referred to as consisting of this restraint in general terms. It is not enough however that the activities of the mind should be merely mechanistically restrained (in a unilateral sense), but it is also to be understood that the mind when restrained should be constantly joined to the reasoning Self (cidatma). What is more, such a union should also take place so as to justify the name of Yoga properly understood.
na drashta darsanam drisyam vidyate yatra tatra hrit
yojayedvasana yavadyogo´yamiti yogavit
Where the seer, the sight and the seen
Are not present, there the heart
Should be joined as long as incipient memory factors (are present);
Such is Yoga, (says) the knower of Yoga.
DRASHTA DARSANAM DRISYAM CA, the seer, the sight and the seen;
NA VIDYATE, are not present,
TATRA, there (i.e., in the ultimate Self);
HRIT the heart (or mind);
YAVAT VASANA (VIDYATE), as long as incipient memory factors (are present);
YOJAYET should be joined;
AYAM YOGA, such is Yoga;
ITI YOGAVIT (VADATI) (says) the knower of Yoga.
The seer, the seen and the sight, or, in other words, the knower, knowledge and what is known are called in Vedanta triputi (tribasic prejudice). In the true form proper to the Self there is no triputi. When the outgoing activities of the mind have been restrained and the attitude of samadhi (peace) is reached, there is no room for the operation of triputi. In that state of peace, the form of the Self free from triputi becomes revealed without any hindrance. Patanjali has also described this stage as, "then takes place the attainment of the proper form of the seer". This form is free from triputi and is of the status of sat-cit-ananda (existence-subsistence-value or bliss). As soon as one comes out of the state of samadhi the tribasic prejudice (triputi) asserts itself and the many activities of the mind produce attachment and aversion and the consequent sensations of pleasure and pain. The incipient memory factors (vasanas) which remain in the inner faculty of the mind are the subtle and potential source causing all the varied activities of the mind. Therefore until such time as these vasanas are weakened and completely destroyed it is necessary to unite the mind with the Ultimate Self which is free from tribasic prejudice (triputi), and thus to practice (the art of) samadhi (i.e. the wisdom of supreme peace which is that of Yoga). It is such a kind of Yoga that has been stated by qualified persons who have experienced this type of peace as consisting of true Yoga.
namarupamidam sarvam brahmaiveti viliyate
yadbrahmani mano nityam sa yoga iti niscitah
All this consisting of name-form (knowing)
As Verily the Absolute, the mind ever merges
In the Absolute, what constitutes such
As yoga is ascertained.
IDAM NAMA-RUPAM SARVAM, all this of name-form;
BRAHMA EVA ITI, as verily the Absolute,
MANAH, the mind,
BRAHMANI, in the Absolute,
VILIYATE, gets merged,
(ITI)YAT, (such) what is,
YOGAH ITI NISCITAH, as yoga is ascertained.
As stated in the previous verse, it is not easy to restrain mental activity and to remain in the unconditioned and calm contemplation of the Absolute, fully free from tribasic prejudice (triputi) and the operation of the three nature modalities (triguna). It is difficult to remain always in a kind of peace which is without any mental activity at all. Even if we should repeat the word brahman (the Absolute) any number of times, the world of name-form made manifest by attributes does not disappear from being operative within consciousness. When the reasoning mind is distracted by interests of ordinary life consisting of worldly thoughts, the attainment of samadhi (peace) is not possible. Then how is it possible to accomplish such a Yoga?
This verse intends to give the answer to such a question for the aspirant who wishes spiritual progress through Yoga, and puts the question with an intense desire to know an alternative way. Instead of trying to see this visible world as consisting of name-form and thus as entirely false, it is recommended here as easier on the basis of the mahavakyas (great sayings) such as "Everything here is the Absolute," to look upon the whole phenomenal universe as consisting of the Absolute. It is not easy to turn from the long mental habit, enduring through many births, telling us the world is real. Even though to a discriminating mind the world is philosophically false, the appearance of the world as real still continues to be operative.
Narayana Guru now makes reference to a verse in his Advaita Dipika (Lamp of Non-Duality), which states that even when discrimination has abolished the reality of the World, it continues to be given to the senses just as to a man who has lost his sense of direction, the error could persist for some time even after the orientation has been intellectually corrected. A mistake might continue to persist for some time even after its recognition as a mistake merely by force of habit. There is also reference to another verse in the Atmopadesa Satakam where Narayana-Guru states the converse possibility and says that all things are real enough but that the man of philosophical disposition could comprehend the unity underlying all things.
This alternative case can be easily practiced and is here recommended in view of an aspirant, who, by practising this kind of Yoga for a long time until the incipient memory factors are eliminated, will accomplish the same purpose of Yoga otherwise more difficult. It is to underline the continued practice that the word nityam (always) has been used. Patanjali also underlines this same verity when he says that by long practice without interruption in a reverent spirit of service, one is capable of stabilizing certitude. Such an unceasing practice is itself Yoga.
cittasya nirantaram tailadharavadvrittya'vicchannaya'tmani
ramyate yatsayogo yogibhih smritah
That unbroken functioning of reason
Which in the Self, like a streak of oil
Finds incessant joy, such as yoga
Is by yogis recognized.
TAILA-DHARAVAT, like the streak of flowing oil,
CITTASYA VRITTYA, by the functioning of the reason,
ATMANI, in the Self,
RAMYATE (ITI) YAT, (in that) it finds joy,
SAH YOGAH (ITI), that (as) Yoga
YOGIBHIH SMRITAH, is recognized by yogis.
The kind of Yoga practiced under conditions where no definite rules are observed, and where the mind still remains distracted, does not yield the results of the high state of samadhi (peace). It is not conducive to Self-realization, because of the many hindrances. Like the incessant flow of the streak of oil when poured from one vessel into another, there must be an unbroken continuity of the relation of a stilled mind, which has to be turned wholeheartedly towards its proper object of meditation with continuity And without any interruption, before Self-realization can be accomplished. In this way the practice must be continued until the goal is attained. Occasional meditation will not produce the desired result. It has been pointed out that the attainment of the goal of Yoga is accomplished only after many lifetimes of practice Thus there is the need for incessant practice. It is only when such a high state of attainment is reached that one can say that such a state as found in the texts is firmly established and one is not perturbed even by disasters.
yato yato mano yati sada'tmani tatastatah
niyamya yojayedetatyogo'yam yujyatarniha
To which or which other (interest) the mind goes
From that or that others into the Self
Ever restraining it, it should be joined
In such yoga here let it be united.
MANAH, the mind;,
YATAH YATAH, from which or which other (interest),
TATAH TATAH, from that or that other,
ETAT, this (the mind),
NIYANIYA, having restrained,
ATMANI, in the Self,
YOJAYET, should be joined
AYAM YOGAH, this is Yoga,
IHA, in this here (Yoga),
YUJYATAM, let it be united (i.e. let it be joined, let samadhi be practiced).
As stated in the Bhagavad Gita (VI.26):
"Whatever causes the changeful unsteady mind to go out (again and again), from each such, restraining (it again and again) it should ever be led to the side of the Self."
As it is difficult to keep the mind in a form of unbroken meditation on the Self, after the manner of the streak of oil that is unbroken and continuous, this alternative method of meditation is suggested in order to lighten such a difficulty. One should watch out carefully and incessantly for any change that might take place in the mind in its goings and comings. Without one being aware of it, the mind by its incipient memory disposition tends to follow one or other extraneous interest. In every such case one has to discover the straying of the mind and bring it back by force so as to establish it again in the Self. This Yoga is none other than the constant effort to bring back the mind and establish it in the Self. Such a Yoga has always to be practiced. As again stated in the Bhagavad Gita (VI.28):
"Ever uniting thus the Self, that yogi, rid of dross,
having contact with the Absolute, enjoys easily
happiness that is ultimate."
sarvanarthakarah pumsam sankalpah kalpitaih saha
unmulya vasanajalairyenatmani nirudhyate
drisyasya na drisostitvam ato drisyam drigatmakam
iti yunjita drigrupe yah sa yogavidam varah
Uprooting those incipient memory factors of willing
The source of all human disasters, who
Together with their various willed objects
Restrains in the form of Self (saying):
What is seen has no existence as such
Thus what is seen is the Seer's self
He among knowers of Yoga
Is the most superior.
PUMSAM, for man,
SARVA-ANARTHA-KARAH, which is the source of all disasters,
KALPITAIH, with the objects of wilful desire,
VASAN-JALAIH-SAHA, together with the various incipient memory factors belonging to the will,
YENA, by whom,
ATMANI, in the self,
NIRUDHYATE, is restrained.
DRISYASYA, in visible objects,
NA ASTITVAM, there is no existence,
DRISAH (ASTITVAM ASTI), it is the seer (that has existence),
DRISYAM DRIGATMAKAM (BHAVATI), the seen is the form of the Seer,
DRIGRUPE, in the form of the Self,
SAH YOGAVIDHIM VARAH, he is the knower of Yoga.
The act of the will is the source of all suffering. Every wilful act arises in accordance with the incipient memory factors corresponding to it. The act of willing arises in accordance with some deep seated incipient memory factor, having there lain rooted for a long time. Therefore the yogi or the man of meditation who is interested in avoiding suffering should find out by minute introspection those deep seated incipient memory factors and abolish them so as to become established in the unity of Yoga.
Yoga is not any form of self-torture. It is the union of the seer and the seen that is here referred to as Yoga. All that is visible is, in reality, unreal and what really exists is only the basis for such visible entities in the Self as has already been indicated in the second and third chapters. Therefore having first brought into union the visible with the seer, that is to say, seeing everything in the form of the seeing subject alone, he should remain in the form of that inner witness. It is a man who understands Yoga in this manner who is to be considered a superior kind of Yoga-knower.
yada piban manobhringah svanandamadhumadhurim
na spandati vasikritya yojito yogavayuna
When the mind-bee drinking
Of the nectar-sweetness of Self-
Is drawn into union with yoga breeze
And does not flutter (yoga takes place).
YOGAVAYUNA, by the breeze of Yoga,
VASIKRITYA, being drawn to its side,
YOJITAH, having attained to Yoga Union,
MANOBHRINGAH, the bee that is the mind,
SVANANDA-MADHU-MADHURIM, the nectar sweetness of Self-bliss, PIBAN, while enjoying,
NA SPANDATI does not flutter,
(TADA YOGAH SYAT, then Yoga takes place).
The mind has been compared to the bee which keeps fluttering its wings and wanders from flower to flower attracted by any flower that it sees. The mind is also full of unsettled alternating motions and because of its random attractions to whatever interests are presented to it, has been compared to the bee for the reasons mentioned. When the bee is engaged in drinking the nectar from the flower, it attains to stillness; likewise the mind when it has attained to Self-bliss also becomes stilled. Just as the bee is carried along by the breeze, by the continued practice of Yoga the mind is also carried along to its goal of happiness. Just as the bee becomes still by the enjoyment of the honey, so the mind becomes still by the sweetness of the honey of happiness found in the Self. When such a stillness is firmly established, such a state is to be understood as Yoga.
As for the term vasikritya (being attracted to its side), we have to remember that the natural tendency of the mind is to be dissipated by outward interests, and so this term applies to the withdrawal and canalizing of such dissipation. The mind is always restless and it is necessary that the yogi should insist with a determination to make it enter into union with itself. By the use of the term vayuna (by the breeze or wind), the reference is to be understood as recommending such practices as pranayama (restraint of the breath), etc. The term madhu-madhuri is to be understood as the highest bliss afforded by the Self.
yada syadkhecarimudra nidralasyadinasini
When meditation with gaze fixed between eyebrows,
And the tongue-tip touching beyond the uvula (take place)
Then happens (khecari mudra) that space-freedom attitude
Of drowsiness add fatigue dispelling capacity.
BHRUVAH, of the two eyebrows,
ANTAH, in the middle,
DHYANAM DRISTIH (CA), meditation and gaze
LAMBIKA URDHVATAH, placed beyond the uvula,
JIHVAGRAM (CA), the tip of the tongue (also),
(SYAD) take place,
NIDRA ALASYA ADI NASINI, of sleep, fatigue etc., dispelling potency,
KHECARI MUDRA, an attitude enabling one to attain the freedom of space.
What is known as khecari-mudra is a variety of meditation referring to the centre of the eyebrows. If refers to a special kind of yogic practice whereby the tongue is bent inwards as far as the roof or palate of the mouth while the tip of the tongue enters into the cavity that continues upwards from the roof part of the mouth, the insertion of the tongue being fixed above the point where the uvula starts. At the same time the centre of the eyebrows is its culminating target, and the vision and meditation are fixed together at such a centre. This practice however is to be undertaken only in the actual presence of a Guru who himself is a man who has practiced it and can actually demonstrate it to the would-be yogi. The practice of this kind of attitude called khecari-mudra is to destroy the basic tendencies which express themselves in active (rajasik) and insert (tamasik) tendencies constituting the main items such as fatigue and sleep which are hindrances to the attainment of Yoga perfection or peace (samadhi). The use of the word adi (and so on, etc.) in the above verse, is intended to cover the nine kinds of dissipations or distractions such as illness, doubt, confusion, etc., and the consequent indispositions or debilities which are five in number: depression, lassitude etc. This makes for fourteen subdivisions of hindrances. Because the centre of the eyebrows is the seat of consciousness it is very laudable to meditate with reference to that point.
Patanjali also says that all attainments or ends of Yoga are derivable from consciousness. It is also well known that discrimination is the guiding star for the unstable and alternating stages of phenomenal existence. It is therefore not an exaggeration to say that all the attainments derivable from other yogic practices are also inclusively covered by the cultivation of this supreme form of meditative practice which helps to magnify the power of positive consciousness, making it stronger, subtler, purer and of clearer penetration. It goes without saying that the attainment of wisdom is superior to any other form of spiritual attainment. The practice that leads to this attitude surely yields the benefits of all other secondary practices. Even by the conquest of sleep and fatigue the yogi becomes qualified in principle for all other spiritual attainments.
jnanam karmeti loke'smin dvidha yogah samasatah
anayoryogavistarah, sarvah parisamapyate
As of wisdom or action, yoga in this world
Is of two kinds, and within these summarily
The whole of the further elaboration of Yoga
Is comprised conclusively.
ASMIN LOKE, in this world,
JNANAM KARMAITI, as of wisdom and of action,
SAMASATAH, in summary fashion,
DVIDHA, in two kinds,
YOGAVISTARAH SARVAH, the whole of any further elaboration of Yoga,
ANAYOH, within these,
PARISAMAPYATE, is comprised conclusively.
The two divisions of Yoga are wisdom (jnana) and action (karma) characterized in the following way:
The Yoga of wisdom is concerned with the reality underlying the principles of the Self - which are based on existence, subsistence and value or bliss. These principles have to be brought within the scope of one's experience in the form of Self-realization. This requires a discrimination between lasting and transient values in life belonging to the four prerequisites of the same kind mentioned in Vedantic texts. Such realization can take place only under conditions of detachment.
As for the Yoga of action (karma) it has the following characteristics: The carrying out of such necessary duties or actions which have the wisdom of the Self as the end in view and are done without any thought of enjoying the fruit and gain therefrom, as well as having no sense of bondage but rather keeping within the limit of righteousness as an offering to the Lord (isvara), such is the Yoga of action.
The division made in the Bhagavad Gita (III.3) refers to this kind of principle of classification of the two kinds of Yoga and conforms and justifies the same when it says that the Yoga of wisdom of the Samkhyas and the Yoga of action of the Patanjali Yogins, are the two main disciplines found in this world since ancient times. The Yoga of wisdom has also other descriptive titles applied to it, such as jnana-yajna (the wisdom-sacrifice), samkhya-yoga (meditation based on. reason), thyaga (renunciation), sannyasa (more mature renunciation), buddhi (discrimination), buddhi yoga (meditation based on discrimination), akarma, (non-ritualism), naishkarmya (non-activity), and kevala-jnana (plain and simple wisdom).
In the same way the Yoga of action has other descriptive titles applied to it, such as yoga-yajna (the meditation-sacrifice) yajna (sacrifice), nishkamakarmayoga (the way of meditation which aims at no advantageous fruits thereof), and kevala-yoga (plain and simple yoga) as well as kevala-karma (plain and simple action). There is also the term dharma (righteous way of life) applied to both the Yoga of wisdom and the Yoga of action.
In reality both are the same. The Bhagavad Gita (V. 4 & 5) makes it clear that Samkhya and Yoga are to be looked upon as the same, and he who sees this alone truly sees. It also underlines that only children treat them as distinct and not well informed pandits. Even if one of these disciplines is properly accomplished the result of both of them accrues. These passages in the Bhagavad Gita treat wisdom and action as forming one discipline only. It is necessary however to have the guidance of wisdom as a primary condition. One has to recognize that all actions depend upon wisdom or intelligence. Thereafter when action is performed it has to be done with intelligence, detachment and the sense of non-active understanding. That is, one should be able to see action in inaction, and inaction in action.
The one who is able to see these two disciplines as not being different is both a jnana-yogi and a karma-yogi. The Bhagavad Gita (IV.18) also says that the man who is able to see in action inaction, and in inaction action is a true yogi while still engaged in every kind of action. The gist of this statement and all the elaborations to which it is capable of being subjected, confirm the unity of these two disciplines.
All the further ramifications of the discipline of Yoga are comprised within the scope of jnana-karma-yoga (the Yoga of combined wisdom and action). Even this distinction in reality is not of much consequence. In spite of this however, in order to distinguish the way of life proper to those who adhere to philosophy and call themselves sannyasins (mature renouncers) and those who combine philosophy with their own activities correctly belonging to their own situation in life, can be more properly called karma-yogis. This distinction in nomenclature is commonly adopted in order to distinguish the two patterns of behaviour in ordinary life. On closer examination both are the same. As the Bhagavad Gita (V.5) puts it, the same point of attainment is reached by the Samkhya philosophers and the Patanjali Yogins.
Although the Bhagavad Gita initially accepts the outward duality between the two disciplines, it stresses the inner unity based on the common end of both. In short, whatever action one might perform and whatever Yoga one might practise it has to be done under the auspices or guidance of intelligence. It is only for action done under such guidance that the name of karma-yoga or the Yoga of action can be applied. It is only when Yoga is accompanied by wisdom that it can be considered to be the supreme goal of human existence which is moksha (liberation) or nirvana (absorption).
X. NIRVANA DARSANAM (VISION OF EMANCIPATION)
nirvanam dvividham suddhamasuddham ceti tatra yat suddham nirvasanam tadvadasuddham vasananvitam
Emancipation is of two kinds -
What is pure and what is impure.
What is without incipient memory-factors, that is pure,
Likewise, what is qualified by incipient memory-factors is impure.
NIRVANAM, emancipation (i.e. absorption),
SUDDHAM-ASUDDHAM-CA-ITI, as pure and impure,
DVIVIDHAM, of two kinds,
TATRA, of these,
YAT NIRVASANAM, what is without incipient memory factors,
TAT SUDDHAM, that is pure,
YAT-VASANA ANVITAM, what is qualified by incipient memory factors,
(TAT) ASUDDHAM (CA BHAVATI), (that becomes) the impure.
The topic of this chapter is concerned with the one ultimate purpose and value which has been reviewed in all the nine previous chapters. For this reason, this version of Nirvana is of greater importance than any of the previous visions. It is with this vision that this work comes to an end. Nirvana refers to the highest point that is attainable by man. In other words, it represents the perfection of life. Although the term is used more properly in the context of Jain and Buddhist thought, those who adhere to the thought of non-dual Vedanta can also use this term as having the same connotation. The following terms are synonyms for Nirvana; nirvriti, escape or absolution; nirvritti, release, absence of functioning; nivritti, withdrawal, paramagati, ultimate goal; paramapadam, ultimate state; moksha, liberation; kaivalya, aloneness; mukti, salvation; amritam, immortality; apavargam, salvation.; nishsreyas, ultimate state; sreyas, spiritual. progress; santi, peace; brahmabhuyam, attaining the Absolute, brahmatvam, absoluteness; brahmasayujyam, union with the Absolute; brahmasamsparsam, participation with the Absolute; brahmanirvanam, absorption in the Absolute; paripurnata, plenitude.
The Nirvana usually described under the term jivanmukti (release while yet in life) refers to the same state. That is to say, when a man has, by means of Self contemplation, attained to (absolute) wisdom and after attaining the practice of Yoga, etc., and while still in life is able to be free from all sufferings, what refers to this ultimate goal of a spiritual aspirant is called Nirvana.
Although Nirvana refers to one and the same subject, as depending on the maturity of certain types of spiritual aspirants qualified for it, and the conditions applying to them, it has here been divided into many divisions, according to the types of expression proper to each. Initially in. this verse it has been divided into two (divisions) called the pure and the impure. What is "free from incipient memory factors" is the pure and what is "qualified by incipient memory factors" is the impure.
atisuddham suddhamiti suddham ca dvividham tatha
As pure and extra-pure, thus
Are two kinds, likewise,
The impure also as impure-pure
And impure-impure is spoken of.
SUDDHAM CA, the pure also,
ATISUDDHAM-SUDDHAM ITI, (as) the extra-pure and the pure,
DVIVIDHAM, of two kinds,
ASUDDHAM-CA, the impure also,
ASUDDHA-SUDDHAM ASUDDHA ASUDDHAM (ITI DVIVIDHAM) UCHYATE, pure-impure and impure-impure are spoken of.
It will be hereafter described in detail that pure Nirvana belongs to liberated men while still in life, and impure Nirvana belongs to those who are attached to psychic powers and who merely desire liberation. It is based on the superiority or inferiority of liberated people in life that the divisions of pure Nirvana have been made. Under the impure class of Nirvana there are only two subdivisions.
atisuddham tridha pascadvare caikam variyasi
ekamekam varisthe'tha suddham brahmavidisthitam
The extra-pure is again of three kinds -
One is the elect, one is the more elect,
One is the most elect - while the pure
Exists in the (simple) knower of the Absolute.
ATISUDDHAM, the extra-pure,
PASCAT TRIDHA, again is of three kinds,
EKAM VARE, one in the elect (knower of the absolute),
EKAM VARIYASI, one in the more elect (superior knower of the absolute),
EKAM VARISHTHE, one in the most elect (most superior knower of the absolute),
BRAHMAVIDICA STHITAM, exists in the (simple) knower of the absolute.
The extra pure (i.e. the superior nirvana) under reference here has three grades: the elect, the more elect, and the most elect. Thus those who have attained liberation while yet in life are of four kinds. Among them the pure abides in the knower of the Absolute; the positively pure abides in the elect; the comparatively pure abides in the more elect; and the superlatively pure abides in the most elect. The personal characteristics that distinguish these four jivanmuktas (those attaining liberation while still alive) will be described below.
mumuksau prathamam vidyat dvitiyam siddhikamisu
The impure - pure is without passion and inertia,
- the other is with passion and inertia.
The former as in one who desires liberation,
While the latter as in one who desire psychic powers is to be known.
ASUDDHA-SUDDHAM, the impure-pure,
VIRAJAS-TAMAH, is without passion and inertia,
ANYAT, the other (i.e. the impure-impure),
SARAJAS-TAMAH, is with passion and inertia,
PRATHAMAM, the former,
MUMUKSHAU, (as) in one who desires liberation,
DVITIYAM, the latter,
SIDDHIKAMESU, (as) in those who desire psychic powers,
VIDYAT, is to be known.
It has been stated that the type of Nirvana which characterizes a person who has got rid of the stains coming from inertia and passion, and whose spirit by its purity of bright and intelligent qualities (ie. sattva guna) begins with the desire for liberation and a wholehearted aloneness towards full liberation, is named-the impure-pure. By the term mumukshau (one who desires liberation) as stated above, one has to think of a type of person whose passionate and inert tendencies have been abolished, and what remains is the bright and intelligent tendency which alone is characterized by the desire for liberation.
Although such a person is still under the sway of some sort of desire, however pure, and because his attainment of Nirvana is not yet fully perfect, it would not be wrong to class it under impure Nirvana. Though such a person is called impure-pure because of the fact that he has the end of perfection in view, and because his desire is characterized with reference to liberation it is not wrong to qualify it as also being impure. When subjected to such a close examination, there is seen to be present the impurity coming from desire and the purity consisting of the pure tendency referring to emancipation as the goal. As these two traits abide together, the combined epithet of impure-pure has been applied to this type of Nirvana.
When a person, through his long habit of contemplation or by the practice of Yoga, becomes qualified for Nirvana, the secondary signs or symptoms of the state into which he has entered are developed in. him through psychic powers, such as knowledge about past and future events or happenings. These symptoms come by themselves and indicate the degree of success of the spiritual progress of the aspirant. Patanjali says in the Yoga Sutras (III.38): "These (psychic attainments) are obstacles to Samadhi. Psychic attainments (cause) excitement."
And Valmiki in the Yoga Vasishta also cautions:
"Again drugs and incantations can produce psychic powers, none of them favourable to the attainment of the supreme state of the Self. Is it not when the love of desires and gains have been cancelled that the great gain of the Self takes place? How can it come to a person whose mind is immersed in desire for psychic powers?"
There are also many other texts discountenancing the importance of such psychic powers. Therefore, we have to understand that these powers are not commendable because they have been vitiated by passionate and inert attitudes. They are capable of making one who has attained to a high state of Nirvana fall from such a state, after making him swerve from the path of salvation. Therefore the Nirvana of the man who desires psychic powers has been classified as impure among the impure. In other words, because the psychic powers as well as the desire for them are both impure, the Nirvana qualified by such powers or desires has been called doubly impure. There is no harm in naming this kind of Nirvana as extremely impure.
dagdhva jnanagnina sarvamuddisya jagatam hitam
karoti vidhivatkarma brahmavidbrahmani sthitah
Established in the Absolute, a knower of the Absolute,
By the fire of wisdom having burnt everything up,
Aiming at the good of the world,
Performs action according to what is considered as right.
BRAHMANI STHITAH, established in the absolute,
BRAHMAVIT, a knower of the absolute,(i.e. a man who is emancipated while still alive),
JNANAGNINA, by the fire of wisdom,
SARVAM DAGDHVA, having burnt everything up,
JAGATAM HITAM UDDISYA, aiming at the good of the world,
VIDHIVAT KARMA KAROTI, performs actions according to what is considered as right
Here the term brahmavit (knower of the Absolute) refers to one who has attained to salvation and has no need to perform actions, but nonetheless continues to do actions without any selfish motives which are conducive to the happiness of the world. The knower of the Absolute, although he has merged his intelligence in the bliss of the happiness of contemplating the Absolute, is still in the context of Nirvana, while continuing at the same time to act in the interests of kindness to all living things. Although he is detached from all actions, he will not engage himself in wrong action. Vidhivat means what is compatible with the rules laid down for conduct. This indicates (a knower of the Absolute) will not engage in wrong action. He will however remain untouched by both good and bad action because of his neutrality to both.
In three different contexts the Bhagavad Gita refers to the fire of wisdom burning up all karma (action) which explain the position here:
"That man whose works are all devoid of desire and wilful motive, whose (impulse of) action has beet reduced to nothing in the fire of wisdom, he is recognized as a knowing person (pandit) by the wise. (IV.19).
Relinquishing attachment for the benefit of works, ever happy and independent, though such a man be engaged in work, he (in principle) does nothing at all. (IV.20).
Just as fire when kindled reduces to ashes the fuel, 0 Arjuna, likewise the fire of wisdom reduces all works to ashes. (IV.37)
(For a description of the brahmavit (knower of the Absolute) see Chapter II, verses 65-72 in the Bhagavad Gita).
The eloquent description on the part of Lord Krishna correctly answers to what constitutes a brahmavit as intended (by us) in this chapter. In various contexts found in the wisdom texts, a knower of the Absolute has been described and praised in the following ways:
"The knower of the Absolute becomes the Absolute."
"The knower of the Absolute attains the Ultimate."
Established firmly in his understanding, without having any false notions, that man who has established himself in the knowledge of the Absolute is called the knower of the Absolute. He does not become glad when obtaining favourable results, nor does he become sorry when. obtaining bad results.
samnasya sarvakarmani satatam brahmanisthaya
yascaratyavanau dehayatrayai brahmavidvarah
(He who) renouncing all action,
Always established in the Absolute,
Continues the course of the bodily life,
In the world - (he) is the elect knower of the Absolute.
YAH, he who,
SARVA-KARMANI SAMNASYA, renouncing all action,
SATATAM BRAHMANISHTHAYA, always established in the absolute,
DEHA YATRA YAI, continuing the course of the daily life,
AVANAU CARATI, wandering in the world,
(SAH) BRAHMAVIDVARAH, (he) is the elect knower of the Absolute.
This is the distinguishing characteristic of the man who has attained to the first stage of those who are called elect knowers of the Absolute. This type of knower of the Absolute has only that degree of responsibility about carrying the burden of the body he has come to possess because of actions from the past only till the moment such actions with their beginnings in the past have been expended thus causes the body to drop off of itself. In the Bhagavad Gita (III.17) we read:
"But for him who happens to be attached to the Self alone,
who finds full satisfaction in the Self,
for such a man who is happy in the Self as such, too,
there is nothing that he should do."
What has just been stated also answers to the description of an elect knower of the Absolute. It is this type of elect knower of the Absolute that can correctly be called a Sannyasi (renouncer). In XII.13 to 19 of the Bhagavad Gita we read;
"He who has no hatred to all creatures, who is also friendly and compassionate, who is free from possessiveness (mine-ness) and egoism, who is equalized in pain and pleasure, and forgiving,
Such a unitively-disciplined one (yogi) who is always contented, self-controlled, firmly resolved, whose mind and reason are dedicated to Me, he My devotee, is dear to Me.
He who does not disturb (the peace of) the world and (whose peace) is not disturbed by the world, and who is free from exaggerations of joy, hate and fear, he too is dear to Me.
He who expects no favours, who is clean, expect, who sits unconcerned, carefree, who has relinquished all undertakings, he My devotee is dear to Me.
He who is the same to friend and foe, and also in honour and dishonour, who is the same in cold and heat, in pleasure and pain, and who is free from attachment;
He who neither rejoices nor hates, nor grieves nor desires, and who has relinquished (both) the beneficial and the harmful, such a one endowed with devotion is dear to Me.
To whom censure and praise are equal, who is silent (in manner), content with whatever happens to come, having no fixed abode, mentally constant, such a man of devotion is dear to Me."
The person described in these seven verses in Chapter XII called bhakti yoga (Unitive Devotion and Contemplation) refers to the elect knower of the Absolute who has renounced all undertakings in life. Because the contemplative state of this type of knower of the Absolute is free from action, public-mindedness, etc., without even the least touch of urgency to action and attachment to public life, and because he is always in the enjoyment of the bliss of emancipation, this type of Nirvana has been put in the category of an elect kind of emancipation or absorption.
anyena vedito vetti na vetti svayameva yah
sa variyan sada brahmanirvanamayam asnute
(He who) being informed by another is able to know,
But (he) himself does not know-
He is the more elect, who always
Enjoys absorption in the Absolute.
YAH, he (i.e. the jivanmukta or man attaining liberation while still alive,
ANYENA VEDITAH, being informed by another,
VETTI, is able to know,
SVAYAM-EVA, then by himself,
NA VETTI, does not know,
SAH VARIYAN, he is the more elect,
AYAM, such a one,
BRAHMANIRVANAM, absorption in the absolute,
The (plain) knower of the Absolute, while engaged without passion or motivated by any (personal) gain, enjoys the bliss of Nirvana while doing works beneficial to the world. As for the more elect knower of the Absolute, he, abandoning all works, accomplishes his journey here fully and consciously awake. If we now think of the second type called the more elect (variyan) knower of the Absolute, he is one without any attachment to the world and without being interested in doing any acts, nonetheless with his activities turned inwards (introspectively) and without any consciousness of outward things, silently remains in the bliss of emancipation or absorption. He attains to outward consciousness only when prompted by somebody else, and thus comes to be conscious of such matters as sounds or touch. Thereafter he again relapses into his own natural state of silence and again enters into the bliss of Nirvana. In this state of profound peace (he) enjoys uninterruptedly the bliss of the Self. This kind of Nirvana has been termed as the more elect kind of emancipation. This more elect knower of the Absolute is referred to as one who has transcended the sphere of the operation of the three nature modalities (gunas). It is this very type of jivanmukta (man attaining liberation while still alive) who has transcended the nature modalities that is described in the Bhagavad Gita in XIV 22-26
svayam na vetti kincinna vedito'pi tathaiva yah
sa varisthah sada vrttisunyo'yam brahma kevalam
(He who) by himself does not know anything,
And even when made to know (knows) not -
Such a one, always void of activity,
The most elect, is the Absolute alone (in itself).
YAH ,he who,
SVAYAM, by himself,
NA VETTI, does not know,
TATHAIVA VEDITAH-API, and likewise even when made to know,
NA (VETTI), (he) knows not,
SA VARISHTHAH, he is the most elect,
NYAM, such a one,
VRITTI-SUNYAH, void of activity,
KEVALAM BRAHMA, is the absolute alone (in himself).
The most elect knower of the Absolute is he who, without having any outer consciousness of things, has a mental life whereby he is always merged in the state of Nirvana. This most elect knower of the Absolute is not affected by any incipient memory factors (vasanas) which refer to his body or the physical world.
He has no alternating activities of the mind each as right or wrong volitions. All acts which arise from one's preferences or hatreds of things are always motivated by the prevalence of the three nature modalities whether they be easy or difficult. Because of transcending the influence of the three nature modalities, this most elect knower of the Absolute is not subject to any functional activity arising in his mind. Only the basic functions of life continue to operate. Even when, by virtue of life functions persisting in him, he is seen to move, he is not aware of them. What is more, even when he is prompted by others he does not gain any consciousness of them. The normal experiences of life such as thirst and hunger are not felt by him. He does not even have the consciousness of possessing a body. He will not take food by himself. His earthly body has attained to natural inertness because the Self has attained to its proper state of aloneness.
Thus the most elect knower of the Absolute is no other than a person, who, while remaining in a body having minimum life functions, is himself merged in the highest bliss of nirvana. This bliss is of eternal and everlasting purity. Without any possibility of ever returning to life, he attains to the term of what all activities are meant to reach. In other words, he is the Absolute. As the Upanishads declare: "He does not come back". "On attaining that there is no return at all, that is my supreme abode." In such words what has been extolled in the wisdom texts (sruti) and even in the obligatory texts (smriti) refers to this most elect knower of the Absolute. It is this same aloneness (i.e. supreme purity of the Self) which has been referred to by Patanjali as consisting of the equality of purity between the intelligent element (buddhi) and the Self (atma). Here the purity of the buddhi should be understood as the state of non-action attained by transcending the three nature modalities. Thus when the intelligent element attains an equality of purity with the Self, the aloneness from the establishment of the Self in its own true form results. This aloneness is the same as the ultimate emancipation or absorption (paranirvana) or the most elect of all Nirvanas. There is no Nirvana higher than this. There is no living man of Nirvana who is more elect than this most elect knower of the Absolute. Such a state is a very rare one to attain.
The term sada-vritti-sunya (always void of activity) can also be read as sada avartti-sunya (always without return). Then we get the meaning that such a man does not come back to earthy life anymore. This interpretation is also permissible.
heyopadeyata nahyasya'tma va svaprakasakah
iti matva nivartteta vrttirnavarttate punah
Of this (world) there is certainly nothing to be accepted or rejected,
As for the Self, it is self-luminous.
Having understood (thus), one should withdraw (from all functionings),
Thereafter, function does not repeat (itself).
ASYA, of this (world),
HEYA UPADEYATA, rejection or acceptance,
NA-HI, certainly there is not,
ATMA-VA, as for the self,
SVA PRAKASAKAHA, it is self-luminous,
ITI MATVA, having understood thus,
NIVARTTETA, one should withdraw (from all activity),
NA AVARTATE, does not repeat (itself).
Because the world is not real there is nothing to be rejected nor accepted. It is the Self that is real. Therefore it is the Self that we should attain to. One should know in the first instance that the Absolute is true and the world is false. Thereafter one should meditate on the fact that the Self is self- luminous.
ekameva'dvitiyam brahmasti nanyanna samsayah iti
vidvannivartteta dvaitannavartate punah.
The one Absolute alone there is without a second,
Nothing else there is, no doubt herein.
Having thus understood, the well-instructed one
From duality should withdraw, (he) does not return again.
ADVITIYAM, without a second,
BRAHMA EKAM-EVA (ASTI), one absolute alone (there is),
NA ANYAT ASTI, nothing else there is,
(ATRA) NA SAMSAYAH, (here) is no doubt,
ITI MATVA, having thus understood,
VIDVAN, the well-instructed one,
DVAITAT, from duality,
IVARTTETA, should withdraw,
SAH) PUNAH NA-AVARTTATE, (he) does not return again.
The words "one Absolute only without a second" is a teaching found in the Chandogya Upanishad. Its meaning is that the Absolute is without any difference between entities of the same kind.. To say that there is only one Absolute and that there is no other Absolute like it, is the negation of difference between entities of the same kind. To say that besides the Absolute there is no second entity at all constitutes the non-difference between entities of different kinds. That the Absolute has no changes within itself such as origin, growth, transformation, etc. is what amounts to saying there is no internal difference in the Absolute. In the above dictum the term ekapi (one) refutes any difference. The term advitiyani (without a second) underlines the absence of the difference between different kinds of entities. The term eva (itself) is meant to underline the absence of any difference within itself of the Absolute. Even in the Taittiriya Upanishad we see it often repeated that, "He, the Absolute is only one." With the help of the meditation on these truths, one should abolish all doubt and attain firm certitude about the unique status of the Absolute. The one who has attained to the state of Nirvana is the real learned one. He will nevermore have the confusion arising from duality. He will be finally released from the suffering arising from dualistic belief. Then, by itself, that kind of happiness which is of a never returning order happens and no more suffering can take place.
In the Katha Upanishad it is also stated that a wise man is never born nor does he ever die. The released man enters into such an eternal state forever. The Mandukya Upanishad says that when the vision of the ultimate Self takes place, the knots of the heart are severed, all doubts are cut off, and all actions weakened. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad we also read, "for them there is no return." In the Chandogya Upanishad it says, "He attains to the world of the Absolute (and) this is Nirvana." The same type of wise man is mentioned similarly in many parts of the wisdom texts. He enjoys the ultimate bliss of Nirvana which is ever auspicious, most bright, and desirable.